Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve

Together with the Centre for Electric Technology, DTU, Ea Energy Analyses has carried out a research project on the potentials for using frequency controlled demand as reserves in the electricity system. The project has been supported by Energinet.dk's PSO scheme and ran from April 2006 to July 2008.


Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allows demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without affecting customer comfort.


Consequences and potentials for DFR in the Danish electricity system

This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. The potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark have been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models have been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. See the final report "Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve - Final Report of the PSO project".


Analysis of technical possibilities

In the power system, regulation is needed to ensure the supply of electricity. Traditionally, regulation is carried out by the central power plants, but also demand can be used as reserve. The report "Demand as frequency controlled reserve - Analysis of technology and potentials" investigates the technical possibility of using different electricity-consuming appliances as reserve controlled by the frequency.



Publications connected to the project

  • Xu, Z., J. Østergaard, M. Togeby (2011): Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems — 2011, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp. 1062-1071.
  • Douglass, P.J., R. Garcia-Valle, P. Nyeng, J. Østergaard, and M. Togeby (2011): Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve: Implementation and practical demonstration. Proceedings of IEEE PES ISGT 2011 Europe — The second European conference and exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, 2011.
  • Xu, Z., J. Østergaard, M. Togeby (2011): Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol 26, Issue 3, pp.1062-1071.
  • Nyeng, P., J. Østergaard, M. Togeby and J. Hethey (2010): Design and Implementation of Frequency-responsive Thermostat Control. 45th International Universities' Power Engineering Conference (UPEC 2010), Cardiff, Wales, UK.



Last update 31-Jul-2017


Helge Ørsted Pedersen



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