Energy saving effects of feedback on energy consumption

Ea Energy Analyses conducted a review of existing studies of the energy saving effects of feedback. Feedback on energy consumptions is described as an instrument to promote energy savings.


The study assessed the quality of the many analyses and summarise the effect to be expected of different types of feedback, for example the connection between heat consumption and information of consumption based on manual reading of meters.


The EU energy efficiency directive requires the use of feedback emphasizing that users should receive billing information regularly.


Ea Energy Analyses conducted the study for the Danish Energy Agency in the period March 2015 to May 2015.


A subsequent analyses was made for the Danish Energy Agency on the costs associated with frequent billing information to energy consumers.


AECOM (2011): “Energy Demand Research Project: Final Analysis”.


Allcott, H. (2010): Social norms and energy conservation, Journal of Public Economics.


Carroll, J., S. Lyons and E. Denny (2013): “Reducing Electricity Demand through Smart Metering: The Role of Improved Household Knowledge”, Trinity Economics Papers.


Christiansen, E., A. M. Kanstrup, A. Grønhøj, A. Larsen (2009): Elforbrug på e-mail & sms: Rapport om 22 husholdningers erfaringer efter et års feedback.

Darby, S. (2006):  The effectiveness of feedback on energy consumption. A review for DEFRA of the literature on metering, billing and direct displays. Oxford University.

Darby, S. et al (2011): Large-scale testing of new technology: some lessons from the UK smart metering and feedback trials. ECEEE.

Darby, S. et al. (2015):  Smart Metering Early Learning Project: Synthesis re-port. DECC. Main report and annexes.

DECC (2015): Smart Metering Early Learning Project: Domestic Energy Consumption Analysis.

Delmas, M. A., Fischlein, M., Asensio, O. (2013): Information strategies and energy conservation behavior: A meta-analysis of experimental studies from1975to2012. Energy Policy, 61., 729-739.

D’Oca, S., Corgnati, S.P. and Buso, T. (2014): Smart meters and energy savings in Italy: Determining the effectiveness of persuasive communication in dwellings. Energy Research and Social Science, 3., 131-142.

Ehrhardt-Martinez, K, K. A. Donnelly and J. A. Laitner (2010): Advanced Metering Initiatives and Residential Feedback Programs: A Meta-Review for Household Electricity-Saving Opportunities. ACEEE, Report Number E105

EEA (2013): Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change: what does it take? European Environmental Agency Technical Report. No 5/2012

Enright, T., A. Faruqui (2012): A bibliography on dynamic pricing of electricity, version 1.0 (contain 175 references).

EPRI (2009): Residential Electricity Use Feedback: A Research Synthesis and Economic Framework. Final report. Electric Power Research Institute.

Felsmann, C. and Schmidt, J. (2003): Effects of consumption-dependent billing as a function of the standard of energy efficiency in buildings. Final report
Dresden Technical University.

Fischer, C. (2007): Influencing Electricity Consumption via Consumer Feed-back. A Review of Experience. ECEEE 2007 Summer Study, 4-9 June 2007.

Fischer, C. (2008): Feedback on household electricity consumption: a tool for saving energy? Energy Efficiency, Vol 1:79–104.

Gleerup, M.; A. Larsen, S. Leth-Petersen, M. Togeby (2010): The effect of feedback by SMS-text messages and email on household electricity consumption : Experimental evidence. Energy Journal, Vol. 31, Nr. 3, 2010, s. 113-132.

Kathryn Buchanan, Riccardo Russo, Ben Anderson (2015): The question of energy reduction: The problem(s) with feedback. Energy Policy, Volume 77, Pages 89–96.

Kerr, R and Tondro, M (2012): Residential feedback. Devices and programs: opportunities for natural gas. U.S. Department of Energy.

Kofod, C. (2013): Fastlæggelse af danske standardværdier for Feedback.

Morgenstern P., Lowe, R., Lai Fong Chiu (2015): Heat metering: socio-technical challenges in district-heated social housing. Building Research and Information, 43., 197-209.

Nilsson, A., C. J. Bergstad, L. Thuvander, D. Andersson, K. Andersson, P. Meiling (2014): Effects of continuous feedback on households’ electricity consumption: Potentials and barriers. Applied Energy, Volume 122, Pages 17–23.

Novikova, A. et al. (2011):  Information tools for energy demand reduction in existing residential buildings. Climate Policy Initiative.

Räsänen T, Ruuskanen J, Kolehmainen M. (2008): Reducing energy consumption by using self-organizing maps to create more personalized electricity use information. Applied Energy 2008:85:830-840.

Schembri, J. (2008): The Influence of Home Energy Management Systems on the Behaviours of Residential Electricity Consumers: An Ontario, Canada Case Study. University of Waterloo.

Schleich, J., M. Klobasa, M. Brunner, S. Gölz (2011): Effects of feedback on residential electricity demand.

Schleich, J., M. Klobasa, M. Brunner, S. Gölz, K. Götz, G. Sunderer (2011): “Smart metering in Germany and Austria – results of providing feedback information in a field trial”, Fraunhofer.

SEAS/NVE (2015): Vind med nye elvaner. Slutrapport på elpristesten.

Ueno, T., F. Sano, O. Saeki, K. Tsuji (2006): Effectiveness of an energy consumption information system on energy savings in residential houses based on monitored data. Applied Energy 83 166–183.

van Elburg, H. (2008):   Subject Report on Effective Customer Feedback Mechanisms. ESMA project.

Vassileva, I. and Campillo, J. (2014): Increasing energy efficiency in low-income households through targeting awareness and behavioral change. Renewable Energy, 67., 59-63

Vine, D., L. Buys, and P. Morris (2013): The effectiveness of energy feedback for conservation and peak demand: a literature review. Open Journal of Energy Efficiency, 2(1), pp. 7-15.

Wilhite, H. and R. Ling. 1995. Measured Energy Savings From a More Informative Energy Bill. Energy and Buildings 22: 145-155.

Wilhite, H. (1999): Advances in the use of consumption feedback information in energy billing: the experiences of a Norwegian energy utility. ECEEE.

Winett, R. A., M. S. Neale and H. C. Grier (1979):  Effects of Self-Monitoring and Feedback on Residential Electricity Consumption. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12., 173-184.


Last update 08-Dec-2016

Further information



Impact of Feedback about energy consumption

May 2015


Contact: Mikael Togeby



Helge Ørsted Pedersen



Ea Energy Analyses Frederiksholms Kanal 4, 3. th.1220 Copenhagen KDenmark Tel work+45 88 70 70 83 Fax +45 33 32 16 61

GEO: 55.675932, 12.575096